London is the capital city of England and the United Kingdom. It is the most populous city in the United Kingdom, with a metropolitan area of over 13 million inhabitants. Standing on the River Thames, London has been a major settlement for two millennia, its history going back to its founding by the Romans, who named it Londinium. London’s ancient core, the City of London, largely retains its 2.9 km2 mediaeval boundaries and in 2011 had a resident population of 7,375; making it the smallest city in England. Since at least the 19th century, the term London has also referred to the metropolis developed around this core. The bulk of this conurbation forms the Greater London administrative area (coterminous with the London region), governed by the Mayor of London and the London Assembly.

London has a diverse range of peoples and cultures, and more than 300 languages are spoken within Greater London. The region had an official population of 8,416,535 in 2013, the largest of any municipality in the European Union, and accounting for 12.5% of the UK population. London’s urban area is the second most populous in the EU, after Paris, with 9,787,426 inhabitants according to the 2011 census. The city’s metropolitan area is the third most populous in Europe after Moscow and Istanbul, with 13,614,409 inhabitants, while the Greater London Authority puts the population of London metropolitan region at 21 million. London was the world’s most populous city from around 1831 to 1925.

Key Factors of London, UK

Within Europe, London is part of Europe’s economic core, the area producing the majority of the GDP or wealth of Europe, in what is called Europe’s “hot banana” alongside Paris, Geneva, and Milan. London also has a global reach through its major airports, Heathrow and Gatwick, and its economic pull via the City of London and the Stock Exchange.

  • London is famous for its numerous magnificent ancient buildings like St. Paul’s Cathedral, The Tower of London, Big Ben, The Palace of Westminster and Tower Bridge, as well as its stunning public spaces, prestigious art galleries and museums, the Royal Family, and diverse culture.
  • Time starts in the London borough of Greenwich. Greenwich is home to the Royal Observatory. The Royal Observatory is the point from which GMT or Greenwich Mean Time is calculated.
  • The Tower of London is one of the city’s major tourist attractions. When you visit, you will notice an unkindness of ravens – carefully presided over by a Yeoman Warder.
  • With over 200 museums and galleries spread throughout the city, you will never fall short on things to do.
  • Big Ben is not the name of that world-famous tower in London. In fact, it is actually the name for the clock inside the tower.
  • City of London is actually a small urban part of Greater London, covering just 1.2 square miles and has a population of around 7000 residents.
  • Located in Southwark, Central London, the Shard was the tallest in the EU and is the fifth tallest in the whole of Europe.
  • The city is home to more than 80 billionaires – making London the city with the highest number of billionaires in the world.
  • There’s no other place in the world more diverse than London. The most popular languages after English are Bengali, Gujarati, Punjabi, Cantonese, Mandarin, and Polish.
  • The London Tube is the first ever underground rail network in the world. The Metropolitan Line was the first fully operational line, built in 1863.
  • London is also home to a large number of museums and galleries that you everyone can visit for free.
  • There is a statue of George Washington in Trafalgar Square. As Washington famously said that he would never set foot on British soil again, soil was brought over from America to be placed under the statue.

It should come as no surprise that a large number of people in London are connected to the internet. Only 8% of the population of London do not have broadband. Online business is crucial in today’s market. In fact, as of two years ago in 2014, over £1000 was spent per person over the year.


London is a major global transportation hub with excellent connectivity to the rest of the world through various modes of transportation, including train, air, and road networks. Here’s an overview of how London is connected to the rest of the world:

  1. Air Transport:
    London is served by several major airports, including:
  • Heathrow Airport (LHR): Heathrow is one of the busiest airports in the world and serves as a major international gateway. It offers flights to destinations worldwide, connecting London to North America, Europe, Asia, Africa, and Australia.
  • Gatwick Airport (LGW): Gatwick is another major international airport located to the south of London. It primarily serves European and long-haul leisure destinations.
  • London Stansted Airport (STN): Stansted is located to the northeast of London and handles both scheduled and charter flights to various European destinations.
  • London Luton Airport (LTN): Luton Airport is situated to the north of London and offers a range of European and a few long-haul flights.
  • London City Airport (LCY): Located in the heart of London, this airport primarily serves business travelers with short-haul flights to European destinations.

These airports provide London with extensive global connectivity, making it easy for travelers to reach destinations worldwide.

  1. Train Transport:
    London is well-connected to mainland Europe through the Eurostar high-speed train service, which operates from London St Pancras International station. The Eurostar connects London to cities such as Paris, Brussels, Amsterdam, and more. Additionally, the United Kingdom has an extensive domestic rail network, with London serving as the central hub. You can reach various cities and regions across the UK using train services such as the London Underground (the Tube), national rail services, and high-speed trains like the London to Birmingham HS2 route.

  2. Road Transport:
    London is connected to the rest of the United Kingdom and continental Europe via a comprehensive road network:
  • Motorways: London is encircled by the M25 motorway, providing easy access to various parts of the UK. Major motorways like the M1, M4, M3, and M11 connect London to cities in England and Wales.
  • Road Tunnels and Bridges: The city is linked to areas across the River Thames via various tunnels and bridges, such as the Dartford Crossing and the Thames Barrier.
  • Coach and Bus Services: National and international coach services operate from London’s major bus terminals, like Victoria Coach Station, providing road transport connections to other parts of the UK and Europe.

Overall, London’s transportation infrastructure is extensive and diverse, ensuring that the city remains a vital gateway to the rest of the world, facilitating easy travel for both residents and tourists.

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